Lourdes Torres did a study of of the suburban Brentwood on Long Island, NY. This study observed three generations of Puerto Ricans living in New York.
- Language maintenance and language shifting was found in the middle class and the working class minority.
- Use of both Spanish and English was present.
- It is not a corrupt language.
- Not all Spanish communities are the same.
- Spanish is used in shops, social services, churches, bilingual programs and in the home.
- Code switching is a way of expression.
- English is spoken in schools and in employment.
- Proud to be Spanish.
- Spanish is the language used to talk to parents and siblings.
- 1st generation speaks mostly Spanish and English is weak.
- 2nd generation is competent in both Spanish and English.
- 3rd generation speaks English mostly and is the dominant language.
- 3rd generation usually only speaks Spanish to their elders.