Puerto Ricans in New York

Lourdes Torres did a study of of the suburban Brentwood on Long Island, NY. This study observed three generations of Puerto Ricans living in New York.


  • Language maintenance and language shifting was found in the middle class and the working class minority.
  • Use of both Spanish and English was present.
  • It is not a corrupt language.
  • Not all Spanish communities are the same.
  • Spanish is used in shops, social services, churches, bilingual programs and in the home.
  • Code switching is a way of expression.
  • English is spoken in schools and in employment.
  • Proud to be Spanish.
  • Spanish is the language used to talk to parents and siblings.
  • 1st generation speaks mostly Spanish and English is weak.
  • 2nd generation is competent in both Spanish and English.
  • 3rd generation speaks English mostly and is the dominant language.
  • 3rd generation usually only speaks Spanish to their elders.

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